What is Blockchain Technology and How Does it Work

A sophisticated database system called Blockchain Technology enables transparent information sharing inside a company network. Data is kept in blocks that are connected in a chain and stored in a blockchain database. Because of the inability to delete or amend the chain without network consensus, the data remains chronologically consistent. To manage orders, payments, accounts, and other transactions, you can utilize blockchain technology to establish an unchangeable or immutable ledger.

Read: What is Robotic Process Automation – RPA Software Definition and Benefits

A common picture of these transactions is made consistent by the system’s built-in features, which also stop illegitimate transaction submissions. Blockchain is a system for storing data in a way that makes system changes, hacking, and cheating difficult or impossible. A blockchain is simply a network of computer systems that duplicates and distributes a digital ledger of transactions across the entire network.

Each block on the chain comprises several transactions, and each participant’s ledger receives a copy of each new transaction that takes place on the blockchain. Distributed Ledger Technology(DLTrefers to a decentralized database that is governed by numerous users. Transactions on a blockchain are recorded with an immutable cryptographic signature known as a hash.

History of Blockchain Technology

In 1982, cryptographer David Chaum put forth the first blockchain-like technology. Later in 1991, W. Scott Stornetta and Stuart Haber published a paper on their research on consortiums. But Satoshi Nakamoto—a supposed pseudonym for a person or group of people—was responsible for creating and implementing the first blockchain network after the introduction of the first digital currency, Bitcoin. Unlike bitcoin, cryptography has a long history and is a complex and fascinating field. See Why Cryptography Makes Blockchain Unstoppable for a more thorough understanding of how blockchain technology benefits from encryption.

Types of Blockchain Technology

There are four main types of blockchain networks: 

1- Public Blockchains:

A public blockchain is the first subset of blockchain technology. This is where Distributed Ledger Technology first emerged, giving rise to cryptocurrencies like Bitcoin. It eliminates the drawbacks of centralization, such as decreased security and transparency. DLT distributes data throughout a peer-to-peer network rather than storing it in a single location. Due to its decentralized nature, some form of authenticating data must be used.

By using a consensus mechanism, users in the blockchain can agree on the ledger’s present state. Two popular consensus techniques are proof of work (PoW) and proof of stake (PoS). Anyone with internet access can join a blockchain platform to become an authorized node because the public blockchain is open and permissionless. 

2- Private Blockchains

The term “private blockchain” refers to a blockchain network that operates in a constrained setting, such as a closed network, or that is governed by a single institution. Although it uses peer-to-peer connectivity and decentralization like a public blockchain network, this kind of blockchain is substantially smaller in scope. Private blockchains are often run on a tiny network inside a company or organization, where members can join and contribute processing power but everyone else cannot. 

3- Hybrid Blockchains.

Organizations occasionally employ hybrid Blockchain, a form of blockchain technology that includes components of a both private and public blockchain, to get the best of both worlds. It enables businesses to set up both a private, permission-based system and a public permissionless system, giving them control over which data is made available to the public and who has access to it.

With a hybrid blockchain, transactions and records are typically private but can be validated as necessary, for example by granting access via a smart contract. Although protected inside the network, confidential information can still be verified. The hybrid blockchain may be owned by a private organization, but it cannot change transactions. A person who joins Hybrid Blockchain has complete access to the network. Unless they conduct a transaction, other users cannot learn the identity of the user. The opposite person is then made aware of their identity.

4- Consortium Blockchains:

A Consortium blockchain is similar to a Hybrid blockchain where it combines elements of both a private and public blockchain. Yet, it is distinct as in this type of Blockchain, numerous organizational members operate together on a decentralized network. To put it simply, a consortium blockchain is a private blockchain with access restricted to a certain group, removing the risks associated with having just one entity control the network on a private blockchain. Consensus protocols are managed by predetermined nodes in a consortium blockchain which initiates, receives, and validates transactions through a validator node. Nodes that are members can send or receive transactions.

Benefits of Blockchain Technology

Two key characteristics of a blockchain are immutability and distribution. Because of the ledger’s immutability, you can always rely on its accuracy. The blockchain is shielded from network attacks by being distributed.

Blockchain Technology has developed into a management tool for all major international sectors. Blockchain technology is currently being used to innovate games, secure healthcare data, provide transparency for the food supply chain, and fundamentally alter how we manage data and ownership. Although its use as a database for recording transactions is its main advantage, blockchain offers many more advantages than a conventional database. In particular, it eliminates the chance of interference by a bad actor and offers the following commercial advantages.

  • Savings in Time: Using blockchain, transaction durations are reduced from days to minutes. Due to the lack of centralized authority verification, transaction settlement is quicker.
  • Saving of Money: Less monitoring is required for transactions. Direct exchange of valuables between participants is possible. Due to participants’ access to a common ledger, the blockchain prevents effort duplication.
  • Enhanced Security: The security components of blockchain guard against manipulation, fraud, and criminals. 
  • Direct Transactions do away with overhead and intermediary costs; 
  • Direct Transactions reduce the risk of hacking, fraud, and tampering; 
  • More transparent processes with proper record creation and tracking; 
  • Highly secure processes thanks to cryptographic and decentralized Blockchain protocols

How Does Blockchain Technology Work

The term “blockchain” refers to a shared ledger that enables a single, secure, and immutable ledger to be maintained by thousands of connected computers or servers. Blockchain can carry out user transactions devoid of the assistance of any middlemen. All that is required to conduct transactions is a wallet.

Nothing more than a program that enables the use of cryptocurrencies like BTC, ETH, etc. is what a blockchain wallet is. These wallets are protected using cryptographic techniques (public and private keys), allowing the user to oversee and fully control his transactions. There are now wallet options, that let you add an address and create a special domain name. Let’s start by debunking some of the myths surrounding Blockchain technology since it is still in its infancy and could one day lead to a revolution. This is how Blockchain functions.

A block will initially be created when a user creates a transaction on a Blockchain network to reflect that transaction. The requested transaction is broadcast over the peer-to-peer network, which is made up of computers known as nodes, when a block has been formed, and is then validated.

Cryptocurrency, contracts, documents, and other important information are all examples of verified transactions. Once a transaction has been validated, it is added to other blocks to form a new block of information for the ledger. Here, it’s crucial to remember that every new transaction results in the creation of a secured block, which is then encrypted and linked to previous ones using cryptographic principles. Every time a new block is made, it is added to the current. 

Applications and Use Cases of Blockchain Technology

Several sectors, including financial services, healthcare, government, travel and hospitality, retail, and consumer packaged goods (CPG), can use blockchain technology. 

  • Financial Services: Blockchain technology is already being used in a variety of creative ways in the financial services industry. By offering an automated trade lifecycle where all players would have access to the same data about a transaction, blockchain technology simplifies and streamlines the whole process involved with asset management and payments. As a result, there is no longer a need for brokers or intermediaries, and transactional data is effectively managed and transparent.
  • Healthcare: Blockchain has the potential to significantly improve the security, privacy, and interoperability of healthcare data. It has the potential to address a number of the industry’s interoperability issues and make it possible for all parties to the process to safely share healthcare data. It also prevents overhead expenses and the influence of a third party. By using digital signatures and encryption to protect privacy and authenticity, healthcare records can be kept in distributed databases using blockchain technology.
  • Media Blockchain technology is already being used by media firms to combat fraud, cut expenses, and even safeguard the Intellectual Property (IP) rights of material, such as music recordings. MarketWatch projects that by 2024, the worldwide market for blockchain in media and entertainment would be worth $1.54 billion. Eluvio, Inc. is one platform that has captured attention for using blockchain for media. Eluvio Content Fabric, which was formally introduced in 2019, leverages blockchain technology to let content creators manage and distribute premium videos without the aid of content delivery networks to customers and business partners.
  • EnrgyAccording to PWC, blockchain technology could be utilized to carry out energy supply transactions as well as serve as the foundation for metering, invoicing, and clearing procedures. The administration of assets, origin assurances, emission permits, and certificates for renewable energy are some further potential applications.
  • Government: Blockchain technology has the potential to completely change how the government runs and provides its services. It might be crucial in resolving the data transactional issues facing the government sector, which now operates in silos. Better data management between several departments is made possible by the right connection and sharing of data with Blockchain. It increases openness and offers a more effective approach to keeping track of and auditing transactions.
  • CPG and retail: The retail industry has a significant possibility for the use of blockchain technology. This covers a wide range of activities, such as verifying the authenticity of expensive goods, stopping fraud, tracking down stolen goods, providing virtual warranties, controlling loyalty programs, and optimizing supply chain processes.
  • Travel and hospitality: The use of blockchain technology in the travel and hospitality sectors has the potential to significantly alter these sectors. It can be used for financial transactions, document storage (such as passports and other identification cards), reservations, and management of loyalty and reward programs as well as travel insurance.


Because it helps to lower security concerns, eliminate fraud, and deliver transparency in a scalable method, blockchain is an exceptionally groundbreaking and promising technology. Each one is practically unhackable and just as secure as your internet banking portal. A vast range of documents, including loans, land titles, manifests for logistics, and nearly anything of value, can be included in blockchain ledgers.

A multi-verification environment that is ideal for real-time, secure information exchange can be used to communicate Big Data information. Use cases are changing as a result of technological advancement. As more industries use blockchain technology, compliance with data privacy rules is crucial.

Blockchain-as-a-service (BaaS) integrates the distributed ledger platform of the blockchain into the cloud-based software delivery and licensing paradigm that is already well-liked by businesses aiming to reduce costs while boosting security and efficiency. Without utilizing internal resources, BaaS provides the security, accountability, and transparency of blockchain already mentioned. Service providers maintain the BaaS network in the cloud. 

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